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Jumat, 08 April 2011

Sejarah Terbentuknya Suku Betawi !



Jakarta, from Colonial into Millenium

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi) and a 2010 census count population of 9,580,000.

Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre. It is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the twelfth-largest city in the world. The metropolitan area, Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. The city's name is derived from the Old Javanese word "Jayakarta" which translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory".

Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It grew as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. It was made capital of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II.

It was formerly known as :
Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
Jayakarta (1527–1619)
Batavia (1619–1942)
Djakarta (1942–1972)

Landmarks include the National Monument and Istiqlal Mosque. The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.

Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
Jakarta was first known as one of the port of Sunda Kingdom called Sunda Kelapa, located at the mouth of Ciliwung River . The capital of the Kingdom of Sunda , known as Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran or Pajajaran (now Bogor ) can be reached from the port of Sunda Kalapa a two-day trip. According to Portuguese sources, Sundanese Kalapa is one of the ports owned by the Kingdom of Sunda in addition to the port of Banten, helter, Cigede, Tamgara and Cimanuk. Sunda Kalapa that in this text called Kalapa considered to harbor the most important because it can be reached from the capital of the kingdom which is called by the name Dayo (in Sundanese modern: Dayeuh which means the capital city) within two days. Kingdom of Sunda itself is a continuation of the Kingdom Tarumanagara on the 5th century , so this port is estimated to have existed since the 5th century and are thought to be the capital Tarumanagara called Sundapura.
In the 12th century, the port is known as a busy port of pepper. Foreign ships coming from China, Japan, South India, and the Middle East is already docked at the port carrying goods such as porcelain, coffee, silk, fabrics, perfumes, horses, wine, and dyes in exchange for spices spices are a commodity trading time.

Jayakarta (1527–1619)
People Portuguese was the Europeans first came to Jakarta. In the 16th century , Surawisesa , the king of Sunda request assistance Portuguese in Malacca to establish a fort at Sunda Kelapa as protection from possible attacks Cirebon that will secede from the Kingdom of Sunda . Efforts of Surawisesa assistance request to the Portuguese in Malacca is enshrined by the Sundanese in rhyme story Seloka Mundinglaya Dikusumah , where Surawisesa "diselokakan" with his title the name of Mundinglaya. But before the establishment of the fort are taken, Cirebon (assisted by Demak) directly attacked the port. Sundanese people call this incident a tragedy, because the attack has fully-destroyed port city and killed many people there, including Syahbandar port of Sunda. Determination of the anniversary of Jakarta on June 22 by Sudiro , the mayor of Jakarta, in 1956 is based on the tragedy of the occupation of the port of Sunda Kalapa by Fatahillah on year 1527 . Fatahillah change the name of the city into Jayakarta, meaning "city of victory". Furthermore, Sunan Gunung Jati of the Sultanate of Cirebon , the government gave to his son in the White Rose of Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin who became sultan of the Sultanate of Banten .
Batavia (1619–1942)

Prince of Jayakarta

People of Dutch came to the Jayakarta around the end of the 16th century, after a stopover in Banten in 1596 . Jayakarta, at the beginning of the 17th century ruled by Prince Jayakarta , one of the relatives of the Sultanate of Banten . In 1619 , the VOC was led by Jan Pieterszoon Coen occupied the Jayakarta after defeating the Sultanate of Banten and then changed its name to Batavia. During the Dutch colonization, Batavia developed into a large and important city. For urban development, the Dutch import many slaves as workers. Most of them come from Bali , Sulawesi , Maluku , China , and the Malabar coast, India . Some argue that these are to then form a community known as the Batavian tribe (now known as FORKABI, FBR, etc). The widely Batavia only cover the area currently known as Old Town (Kota Tua) in North Jakarta. Before the arrival of slaves, the existing Sundanese people who live in areas such as community Jayakarta Jatinegara People (Jatinegara Kaum) . While the tribes of ethnic immigrants, in the days of Dutch kolinialisme, forming communities of each region. So in Jakarta there are territories of the former community like Chinatown (Kampung Cina), Pekojan, Kampung Melayu, Kampung Bandan, Kampung Ambon, Kampung Bali, and Manggarai.

On 9 October 1740 , there were riots in Batavia with the murder of 5,000 Chinese. With these riots, many Chinese people who ran out of town and take the fight against the Dutch. [11] With the completion Koningsplein ( Gambir ) in 1818, Batavia was developed to the south. In 1920, the Dutch built the city park Menteng, and this region into a new place for the Holland top brass to replace Molenvliet in northern. At the beginning of the 20th century, north of Batavia, Koningspein, and Mester Cornelis ( Jatinegara ) have been integrated into a city.

On January 1, 1926 Dutch government passed a law to reform the system of decentralization and deconcentration wider. In Java island, the province established an autonomous government. Provincie West Java was the first province that was formed in the Dutch Indies which was inaugurated by decree on January 1, 1926, and promulgated in the Government Gazette (State) 1926 No. 326, 1928 No. 27 jo No. 28, 1928 No. 438, dan 1932 No. 507. Batavia became one of residency in addition to Provincie West Java beside Banten, Buitenzorg (Bogor), Priangan, and Cirebon.

Djakarta (1942–1972)
Colonization by Japan began in 1942 and changed the name of Batavia to Jakarta to attract the hearts of the people in World War II . The city is also the site of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on August 17 1945 and occupied by the Dutch until the recognition of sovereignty in 1949 .

Prior to 1959, Djakarta is part of West Java Province. In 1959, Djakarta City status changed from a municipality under the mayor was upgraded to a regional level (Dati I), led by the governor. The first governor was dr. Sumarno sosroatmodjo, an army doctor. Appointment of Governor of the time it is done directly by President Sukarno. In 1961, Djakarta status changed from a Level One Regional Capital Special Region (DKI). Governors remain Sumarno.

Since the declared as the capital city, Jakarta residents jumped very rapidly due to manpower needs of almost all central government in Jakarta. Within 5 years the population doubled over two. Various bags of new middle-class neighborhoods and then expand, like Kebayoran Baru, Cempaka Putih, Rawamangun, and Pejompongan . The centers are also many settlements built independently by various ministries and state institutions such as the Public Corporation Housing .

In the reign of Sukarno, Jakarta held a large project construction, among others, Bung Karno , Istiqlal Mosque , and the National Monument. At this time also the center of Medan Merdeka-Thamrin-Sudirman began to be developed as the main business district, replacing the center of Medan Merdeka-Salemba-Senen-Jatinegara. Centre's first major settlement made by the private developer is Pondok Indah (by PT Pembangunan Jaya) in the late 1970s in South Jakarta.

Flooding is a persistent problem that continues to hit Jakarta.
This population growth rate had been tried were pressured by the governor Ali Sadikin in the early 1970s by stating Jakarta as a "closed city" for immigrants. This policy can not walk and forgotten in times of leadership next governor. Until now, Jakarta still have to wrestle with the problems that occur due to overcrowding, such as flooding , traffic jams , and lack of public transportation are adequate.

In May 1998 , there were riots in Jakarta that victimized many ethnic Chinese . Parliament building was occupied by college-students who want reform.Aftermath of this unrest is the decline of President Soeharto from the presidency.

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